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BACKGROUND:Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease and a major cause of disability worldwide. To effectively plan morbidity management programmes, it is important to estimate disease burden and evaluate the needs of patients. This study aimed to estimate patient numbers and characterise the physical, social and economic impact of LF in in rural Nigeria. METHODS:This is a matched cross-sectional study which identified lymphedema and hydrocele patients with the help of district health officers and community-directed distributors of mass drug administration programmes. A total of 52 cases were identified and matched to 52 apparently disease-free controls, selected from the same communities and matched by age and sex. Questionnaires and narrative interviews were used to characterise the physical, social and economic impact of lymphedema and hydrocele. RESULTS:Forty-eight cases with various stages of lower limb lymphedema, and 4 with hydrocele were identified. 40% of all cases reported feeling stigma and were 36 times (95% CI: 5.18-1564.69) more likely to avoid forms of social participation. Although most cases engaged in some form of income-generating activity, these were low paid employment, and on average cases spent significantly less time than controls working. The economic effects of lower income were exacerbated by increased healthcare spending, as cases were 86 times (95% CI: 17.48-874.90) more likely to spend over US $125 on their last healthcare payment. CONCLUSION:This study highlights the importance of patient-search as a means of estimating the burden of LF morbidity in rural settings. Findings from this work also confirm that LF causes considerable psychosocial and economic suffering, all of which adversely affect the mental health of patients. It is therefore important to incorporate mental health care as a major component of morbidity management programmes.

Original publication




Journal article


BMC infectious diseases

Publication Date





MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London, Faculty of Medicine, Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG, UK.


Humans, Elephantiasis, Filarial, Lymphedema, Severity of Illness Index, Cross-Sectional Studies, Mental Health, Adult, Middle Aged, Rural Population, Income, Nigeria, Female, Male, Interviews as Topic, Young Adult, Social Stigma, Surveys and Questionnaires