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Thoracic electrical bioimpedance (TEB) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) are non-invasive methods to estimate stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO). Thoracic electrical bioimpedance is not in widespread clinical use with reports of inaccurate cardiac output estimation compared to invasive monitors, particularly in non-healthy populations. We explore its use as a trend monitor by comparing it against thoracic echocardiography in fifteen healthy volunteers undergoing two physical challenges designed to vary cardiac output. Of all paired values, 54.6% showed gross trend agreement and only 1.9% showed direct disagreement between the two monitors. Our results show thoracic bioimpedance may have a role as a non-invasive cardiac output trend monitor in healthy volunteer studies.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of medical engineering & technology

Publication Date





33 - 37


a Critical Care Research Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences , University of Oxford , Oxford , UK.