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The authors studied the prevalence and risk determinants for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) in female prostitutes from Dakar (1985-1990), Ziguinchor (1987-1990), and Kaolack (1987-1990), Senegal, West Africa. Each cohort showed a distinct distribution of HIVs: 10.0% HIV-2 and 4.1% HIV-1 in Dakar, 38.1% HIV-2 and 0.4% HIV-1 in Ziguinchor, and 27.4% HIV-2 and 1.3% HIV-1 in Kaolack. In 1,275 female prostitutes from Dakar, increase years of sexual activity and a history of scarification were associated with HIV-2 seropositivity. In contrast, HIV-1 seroprevalence was associated with a shorter duration of prostitution and a history of hospitalization. In 278 female prostitutes from Ziguinchor, HIV-2 seroprevalence was associated with women of Guinea-Bissau nationality and increased years of sexual activity. In 157 female prostitutes from Kaolack, HIV-2 seroprevalence was associated with increased years of sexual activity and a history of never using condoms. The authors also studied the risk determinants for HIV-2 in the 1,280 Senegalese prostitutes pooled from all three sites. Controlling for ethnic group, women from Ziguinchor and Kaolack were more likely to be HIV-2 seropositive as compared with women from the Dakar site. Increased years of sexual activity were associated with HIV-2 seropositivity, while a history of excision and BCG vaccinations decreased the risk of HIV-2 infection.

Original publication




Journal article


American journal of epidemiology

Publication Date





895 - 907


Department of Cancer Biology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115.


Humans, HIV-1, HIV-2, Multivariate Analysis, Odds Ratio, Risk Factors, Regression Analysis, Cohort Studies, HIV Seroprevalence, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Senegal, Female, Surveys and Questionnaires, Sex Work