[Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: diagnosis, incidence, prevention and treatment]
Croes EA., van Gool WA., Jansen GH., van Duijn CM.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder belonging to the spongiform encephalopathies. A variant form (vCJD) is most likely the result of infection with the agent that causes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Diagnostic information can be obtained by EEG, testing cerebrospinal fluid for the presence of the 14-3-3 protein, MRI, brain biopsy, tonsil biopsy, and postmortem brain examination. Some tests, such as MRI and postmortem brain examination, can be used to distinguish between CJD and vCJD. Pathological prions in a tonsil biopsy are only found with vCJD. In the Netherlands, there are four known cases of iatrogenic CJD. On the basis of certain exposure to BSE via the food chain, cases of vCJD are also to be expected. Chloropromazine and mepacrine are known to inhibit the formation of pathological prion conformations, but clinical trials have not yet been carried out.