A genome-wide association study of depressive symptoms.
Hek K., Demirkan A., Lahti J., Terracciano A., Teumer A., Cornelis MC., Amin N., Bakshis E., Baumert J., Ding J., Liu Y., Marciante K., Meirelles O., Nalls MA., Sun YV., Vogelzangs N., Yu L., Bandinelli S., Benjamin EJ., Bennett DA., Boomsma D., Cannas A., Coker LH., de Geus E., De Jager PL., Diez-Roux AV., Purcell S., Hu FB., Rimma EB., Hunter DJ., Jensen MK., Curhan G., Rice K., Penman AD., Rotter JI., Sotoodehnia N., Emeny R., Eriksson JG., Evans DA., Ferrucci L., Fornage M., Gudnason V., Hofman A., Illig T., Kardia S., Kelly-Hayes M., Koenen K., Kraft P., Kuningas M., Massaro JM., Melzer D., Mulas A., Mulder CL., Murray A., Oostra BA., Palotie A., Penninx B., Petersmann A., Pilling LC., Psaty B., Rawal R., Reiman EM., Schulz A., Shulman JM., Singleton AB., Smith AV., Sutin AR., Uitterlinden AG., Völzke H., Widen E., Yaffe K., Zonderman AB., Cucca F., Harris T., Ladwig K-H., Llewellyn DJ., Räikkönen K., Tanaka T., van Duijn CM., Grabe HJ., Launer LJ., Lunetta KL., Mosley TH., Newman AB., Tiemeier H., Murabito J.
BACKGROUND:Depression is a heritable trait that exists on a continuum of varying severity and duration. Yet, the search for genetic variants associated with depression has had few successes. We exploit the entire continuum of depression to find common variants for depressive symptoms. METHODS:In this genome-wide association study, we combined the results of 17 population-based studies assessing depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Replication of the independent top hits (p<1×10(-5)) was performed in five studies assessing depressive symptoms with other instruments. In addition, we performed a combined meta-analysis of all 22 discovery and replication studies. RESULTS:The discovery sample comprised 34,549 individuals (mean age of 66.5) and no loci reached genome-wide significance (lowest p = 1.05×10(-7)). Seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms were considered for replication. In the replication set (n = 16,709), we found suggestive association of one single nucleotide polymorphism with depressive symptoms (rs161645, 5q21, p = 9.19×10(-3)). This 5q21 region reached genome-wide significance (p = 4.78×10(-8)) in the overall meta-analysis combining discovery and replication studies (n = 51,258). CONCLUSIONS:The results suggest that only a large sample comprising more than 50,000 subjects may be sufficiently powered to detect genes for depressive symptoms.