Intestinal nematode infections affect a huge proportion of the world's population. Increasingly these infections, particularly amongst the poorest communities, are controlled through mass drug treatment programs. Seasonal variations of climate and behaviour in these regions can be significant, but their impact on the dynamics of infection and implications for the effectiveness of any mass drug treatment program (a pulsed reduction in worm burden in hosts) is not clearly understood. Here the effect of seasonality on the dynamics of the soil-based helminth, Ascaris lumbricoides, is investigated using a reformulated version of the Anderson-May model for macro-parasitic infections. Explicit analytical expressions are obtained for the stable oscillatory solution over the annual cycle, which provides a means of relating times of peak numbers of eggs, larvae and mature worms to seasonal variations. Numerical and analytical techniques are then used to consider the impact of seasonality on the optimal timing of drug treatment. Our results show that there is a relatively large window for the timing of optimal treatment, and the impact of repeated annual mass drug treatments can be substantially improved if they are timed to coincide with the months when the number of eggs and larvae are at their lowest - minimising reinfection. In terms of a more measurable quantity, in our example this corresponds to the months when the seasonal temperature is highest. Multiple annual treatments at (or close to) the optimal time each year are predicted to achieve local elimination in the community, whereas treatment at other times has a more limited impact. A key finding is that even for pronounced seasonality, perturbations in mean worm burden, and hence seasonal variation in observed egg output, may be small, potentially explaining why seasonal effects have been overlooked. Taken together these results suggest that seasonality of soil-transmitted helminths requires further experimental, field and mathematical study if the impact for mass drug administration programs is to be exploited.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of theoretical biology

Publication Date





96 - 107


Zeeman Institute for Systems Biology and Infectious Disease Epidemiology Research, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK. Electronic address: