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Sequence variants in the parental genomes that are not transmitted to a child (the proband) are often ignored in genetic studies. Here we show that nontransmitted alleles can affect a child through their impacts on the parents and other relatives, a phenomenon we call "genetic nurture." Using results from a meta-analysis of educational attainment, we find that the polygenic score computed for the nontransmitted alleles of 21,637 probands with at least one parent genotyped has an estimated effect on the educational attainment of the proband that is 29.9% (P = 1.6 × 10-14) of that of the transmitted polygenic score. Genetic nurturing effects of this polygenic score extend to other traits. Paternal and maternal polygenic scores have similar effects on educational attainment, but mothers contribute more than fathers to nutrition- and heath-related traits.

Original publication

DOI

10.1126/science.aan6877

Type

Journal article

Journal

Science (new york, n.y.)

Publication Date

01/2018

Volume

359

Pages

424 - 428

Addresses

deCODE genetics/Amgen, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland. augustine.kong@bdi.ox.ac.uk kstefans@decode.is.

Keywords

Humans, Child Development, Maternal Behavior, Parent-Child Relations, Paternal Behavior, Fathers, Mothers, Genomics, Genotype, Multifactorial Inheritance, Alleles, Child, Educational Status, Female, Male