Cookies on this website

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click 'Accept all cookies' we'll assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you won't see this message again. If you click 'Reject all non-essential cookies' only necessary cookies providing core functionality such as security, network management, and accessibility will be enabled. Click 'Find out more' for information on how to change your cookie settings.

Following the emergence and global spread of a novel H1N1 influenza virus in 2009, two A(H1N1)pdm/09 influenza vaccines produced from the A/California/07/09 H1N1 strain were selected and used for the national immunisation programme in the United Kingdom: an adjuvanted split virion vaccine and a non-adjuvanted whole virion vaccine. In this study, we assessed the immune responses generated in inbred large white pigs (Babraham line) following vaccination with these vaccines and after challenge with A(H1N1)pdm/09 virus three months post-vaccination. Both vaccines elicited strong antibody responses, which included high levels of influenza-specific IgG1 and haemagglutination inhibition titres to H1 virus. Immunisation with the adjuvanted split vaccine induced significantly higher interferon gamma production, increased frequency of interferon gamma-producing cells and proliferation of CD4(-)CD8(+) (cytotoxic) and CD4(+)CD8(+) (helper) T cells, after in vitro re-stimulation. Despite significant differences in the magnitude and breadth of immune responses in the two vaccinated and mock treated groups, similar quantities of viral RNA were detected from the nasal cavity in all pigs after live virus challenge. The present study provides support for the use of the pig as a valid experimental model for influenza infections in humans, including the assessment of protective efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

Original publication




Journal article


PloS one

Publication Date





Institute for Animal Health, Compton near Newbury, United Kingdom.


COSI, Leukocytes, Mononuclear, T-Lymphocyte Subsets, Cell Line, Animals, Sus scrofa, Dogs, Orthomyxoviridae Infections, Succinimides, Fluoresceins, Immunoglobulin G, Influenza Vaccines, Adjuvants, Immunologic, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Flow Cytometry, Statistics, Nonparametric, Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction, Cell Proliferation, Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype, Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay, Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction