1,1,3-Trioxo-2H,4H-thieno[3,4-e][1,2,4]thiadiazine (TTD) derivatives: a new class of nonnucleoside human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase inhibitors with anti-HIV-1 activity.
Witvrouw M., Arranz ME., Pannecouque C., Declercq R., Jonckheere H., Schmit JC., Vandamme AM., Diaz JA., Ingate ST., Desmyter J., Esnouf R., Van Meervelt L., Vega S., Balzarini J., De Clercq E.
We report the development of a new group of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). One of the most active congeners of this series of 1,1,3-trioxo-2H,4H-thieno[3,4-e] [1,2,4]thiadiazine (TTD) derivatives, i.e., 2-(3-fluorobenzyl)-4-cyanomethylen-l,1,3-trioxo-2H,4H- thieno [3,4-e] [1,2,4] thiadiazine) (QM96639) was found to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 [HIV-1 (IIIB)] replication in MT-4 cells at a concentration of 0.09 microM. This compound was toxic for the host cells only at a 1,400-fold higher concentration. The TTD derivatives proved effective against a variety of HIV-1 strains, including those that are resistant to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT), but not against HIV-2 (ROD) or simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV/ MAC251). HIV-1 strains containing the L100I, K103N, V106A, E138K, Y181C, or Y188H mutations in their reverse transcriptase (RT) displayed reduced sensitivity to the compounds. Their cross-resistance patterns correlated with that of nevirapine. 2-Benzyl-4-cyanomethylen-1,1,3-trioxo-2H,4H-thieno[3,4-e] [1,2,4]thiadiazine (QM96521) enhanced the anti-HIV-1 activity of AZT and didanosine in a subsynergistic manner. HIV-1-resistant virus containing the V179D mutation in the RT was selected after approximately six passages of HIV-1 (IIIB) in CEM cells in the presence of different concentrations of QM96521. From structure-activity relationship analysis of a wide variety of TTD derivatives, a number of restrictions appeared as to the chemical modifications that were compatible with anti-HIV activity. Modelling studies suggest that in contrast to most other NNRTIs, but akin to nevirapine, QM96521 does not act as a hydrogen bond donor in the RT-drug complex.