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Retrospective cohort study of spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients undergoing bladder stone removal operations between 1999 and 2013.To determine the morbidity associated with different operative management of bladder stones in SCI patients.National Spinal Injuries Unit, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, UK.Data on age, sex, level and Frankel classification of spinal cord injury, method of bladder drainage, method of bladder stone removal, complications and length of stay were collected from patient records. Complication was defined as bladder perforation, sepsis or persistent haematuria. Predictors of complications and length of stay were determined using univariate and multivariate regression analyses.Overall, 112 consecutive bladder stone removal operations were performed, one open cystolithotomy and 111 transurethral procedures utilising simple washout, stone punch or electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL). Of these procedures, 17% (19/112) had complications; 0/11 (0%) following washout, 5/44 (11%) after stone punch, 3/12 (25%) following EHL and 10/26 (38%) after combined procedures using stone punch and EHL. In a multivariate model, patients with a cervical-level injury and those undergoing a combined procedure were significantly more likely to have a complication (P=0.032 and P=0.046). Length of stay was longer following a complication, the mean was 4.18 days compared with 1.37 days without a complication (P<0.001). Controlling complications and age, use of a combined procedure was associated with significantly longer stay than use of stone punch alone.This study provides important outcome data that should guide operative procedure choice and inform patients about possible risks during consent. It sets a benchmark that other centres can evaluate their outcomes against.

Original publication




Journal article


Spinal cord

Publication Date





795 - 799


Department of Urology, Oxford University Hospitals, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.


Humans, Spinal Cord Injuries, Length of Stay, Urologic Surgical Procedures, Morbidity, Multivariate Analysis, Cohort Studies, Predictive Value of Tests, Adult, Middle Aged, Female, Male, Urinary Bladder Calculi