Fasting glucose and insulin are intermediate traits for type 2 diabetes. Here we explore the role of coding variation on these traits by analysis of variants on the HumanExome BeadChip in 60,564 non-diabetic individuals and in 16,491 T2D cases and 81,877 controls. We identify a novel association of a low-frequency nonsynonymous SNV in GLP1R (A316T; rs10305492; MAF=1.4%) with lower FG (β=-0.09±0.01 mmol l(-1), P=3.4 × 10(-12)), T2D risk (OR[95%CI]=0.86[0.76-0.96], P=0.010), early insulin secretion (β=-0.07±0.035 pmolinsulin mmolglucose(-1), P=0.048), but higher 2-h glucose (β=0.16±0.05 mmol l(-1), P=4.3 × 10(-4)). We identify a gene-based association with FG at G6PC2 (pSKAT=6.8 × 10(-6)) driven by four rare protein-coding SNVs (H177Y, Y207S, R283X and S324P). We identify rs651007 (MAF=20%) in the first intron of ABO at the putative promoter of an antisense lncRNA, associating with higher FG (β=0.02±0.004 mmol l(-1), P=1.3 × 10(-8)). Our approach identifies novel coding variant associations and extends the allelic spectrum of variation underlying diabetes-related quantitative traits and T2D susceptibility.

Original publication




Journal article


Nature communications

Publication Date





1] Department of Epidemiology, Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202, USA.


EPIC-InterAct Consortium, Humans, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Insulin, Glucose-6-Phosphatase, Blood Glucose, Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis, Fasting, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, African Continental Ancestry Group, European Continental Ancestry Group, Genetic Variation, Genetic Loci, Genetic Association Studies, Mutation Rate, Exome, Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor