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The school journey is often studied in relation to health outcomes in children and adolescents. Self-report is the most common measurement tool.To investigate the error on self-reported journey duration in adolescents, using a wearable digital camera (Microsoft SenseCam).During March-May 2011, participants (n=17; aged 13-15 years) from four schools wore wearable cameras to and from school for 1 week. The device automatically records time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images, without any action from the wearer. Participants also completed a researcher-administered self-report travel survey over the same period. Analysis took place in November 2011. Within- and between-subjects correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement were derived, accounting for the multiple observations per individual.Self-report data were collected for 150 journey stages and SenseCam data for 135 (90%) of these. The within-subjects correlation coefficient for journey duration was 0.89 (95% CI=0.84, 0.93). The between-subjects correlation coefficient was 0.92 (95% CI=0.79, 0.97). The mean difference (bias) between methods at the whole sample level was small (10 seconds per journey, 95% CI= -33, 53). The wide limits of agreement (± 501 seconds, 95% CI= -491, 511) reveal large random error.Compared to direct observation from images, self-reported journey duration is accurate at the mean group level but imprecise at the level of the individual participant.

Original publication




Journal article


American journal of preventive medicine

Publication Date





546 - 550


British Heart Foundation Health Promotion Research Group, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.


Humans, Photography, Walking, Feasibility Studies, Time Factors, Schools, Students, Bicycling, Transportation, Automobiles, Adolescent, Female, Male, Self Report