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Background: Cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction (AMI-CS) is associated with substantial short-term mortality; however, there are limited data on long-term outcomes and trends. Objectives: This study sought to examine long-term outcomes of AMI-CS patients. Methods: This was a population-based, retrospective cohort study in Ontario, Canada of critically ill adult patients with AMI-CS who were admitted to hospitals between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2019. Outcome data were captured using linked health administrative databases. Results: A total of 9,789 consecutive patients with AMI-CS from 135 centers were included. The mean age was 70.5 ± 12.3 years, and 67.7% were male. The incidence of AMI-CS was 8.2 per 100,000 person-years, and it increased over the study period. Critical care interventions were common, with 5,422 (55.4%) undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation, 1,425 (14.6%) undergoing renal replacement therapy, and 1,484 (15.2%) receiving mechanical circulatory support. A total of 2,961 patients (30.2%) died in the hospital, and 4,004 (40.9%) died by 1 year. Mortality at 5 years was 58.9%. Small improvements in short- and long-term mortality were seen over the study period. Among survivors to discharge, 2,870 (42.0%) required increased support in care from their preadmission baseline, 3,244 (47.5%) were readmitted to the hospital within 1 year, and 1,047 (15.3%) died within 1 year. The mean number of days at home in the year following discharge was 307.9 ± 109.6. Conclusions: Short- and long-term mortality among patients with AMI-CS is high, with minimal improvement over time. AMI-CS survivors experience significant morbidity, with high risks of readmission and death. Future studies should evaluate interventions to minimize postdischarge morbidity and mortality among AMI-CS survivors.

Original publication




Journal article


Journal of the American College of Cardiology

Publication Date





985 - 995