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AimsTo investigate characteristics of people hospitalised with coronavirus-disease-2019 (COVID-19) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS), and to identify risk factors for mortality and intensive care admission.Materials and methodsRetrospective cohort study with anonymised data from the Association of British Clinical Diabetologists nationwide audit of hospital admissions with COVID-19 and diabetes, from start of pandemic to November 2021. Primary outcome was inpatient mortality. DKA and HHS were adjudicated against national criteria. Age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using logistic regression.Results85 confirmed DKA cases, and 20 HHS, occurred among 4073 people (211 type 1 diabetes, 3748 type 2 diabetes, 114 unknown type) hospitalised with COVID-19. Mean(SD) age was 60(18.2)y in DKA and 74(11.8)y in HHS (P ConclusionsHospitalisation with COVID-19 and adjudicated DKA is four times more common than HHS but both associate with substantial mortality. There is a strong association of prior insulin therapy with survival in type 2 diabetes-associated DKA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Original publication




Journal article


Diabetes, obesity & metabolism

Publication Date



Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health & Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK.


ABCD COVID-19 audit group