Ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Rohrmann S., Linseisen J., Boshuizen HC., Whittaker J., Agudo A., Vineis P., Boffetta P., Jensen MK., Olsen A., Overvad K., Tjønneland A., Boutron-Ruault M-C., Clavel-Chapelon F., Bergmann MM., Boeing H., Allen N., Key T., Bingham S., Khaw K-T., Kyriazi G., Soukara S., Trichopoulou A., Panico S., Palli D., Sieri S., Tumino R., Peeters PHM., Bueno-de-Mesquita HB., Büchner FL., Gram IT., Lund E., Ardanaz E., Chirlaque M-D., Dorronsoro M., Pérez M-JS., Quirós JR., Berglund G., Janzon L., Rasmuson T., Weinehall L., Ferrari P., Jenab M., Norat T., Riboli E.
Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), the authors examined the association of ethanol intake at recruitment (1,119 cases) and mean lifelong ethanol intake (887 cases) with lung cancer. Information on baseline and past alcohol consumption, lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, and the anthropometric characteristics of 478,590 participants was collected between 1992 and 2000. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, neither ethanol intake at recruitment nor mean lifelong ethanol intake was significantly associated with lung cancer. However, moderate intake (5-14.9 g/day) at recruitment (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63, 0.90) and moderate mean lifelong intake (HR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.97) were associated with a lower lung cancer risk in comparison with low consumption (0.1-4.9 g/day). Compared with low intake, a high (> or =60 g/day) mean lifelong ethanol intake tended to be related to a higher risk of lung cancer (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 0.93, 1.74), but high intake at recruitment was not. Although there was no overall association between ethanol intake and risk of lung cancer, the authors cannot rule out a lower risk for moderate consumption and a possibly increased risk for high lifelong consumption.