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INTRODUCTION:Skin perfusion varies in response to changes in the circulatory status. Blood flow to skin is reduced during haemodynamic collapse secondary to peripheral vasoconstriction, whereas increased skin perfusion is frequently observed when haemodynamics improve with resuscitation. These changes in perfusion may be monitored using non-contact image-based methods. Previous camera-derived physiological measurements have focused on accurate vital signs monitoring and extraction of physiological signals from environmental noise. One of the biggest challenges of camera-derived monitoring is artefacts from motion, which limits our understanding of what parameters may be derived from skin. In this study, we use phenylephrine and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) to cause vasoconstriction and vasodilation in stationary healthy volunteers to describe directional changes in skin perfusion pattern. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We aim to recruit 30 healthy volunteers who will undergo protocolised infusions of phenylephrine and GTN, followed by the monitored and timed release of a thigh tourniquet. The experimental timeline will be identical for all participants. Measurements of traditionally used haemodynamic markers (heart rate, blood pressure and stroke volume) and camera-derived measurements will be taken concurrently throughout the experimental period. The parameters of interest from the image data are skin colour and pattern, skin surface temperature, pulsatile signal detected at the skin surface and skin perfusion index. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study was reviewed and approved by the Oxford University Research and Ethics Committee and Clinical Trials and Research Governance teams (R63796/RE001). The results of this study will be presented at scientific conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN10417167.

Original publication




Journal article


BMJ open

Publication Date





Critical Care Research Group, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK