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Bacterial whole-genome sequencing is now increasingly available to researchers, reference laboratories and individual healthcare institutions. It can be possible to predict antimicrobial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for Neisseria gonorrhoeae using sequencing data, for many antimicrobials within one or two MIC doubling dilutions of the phenotypic value. With emerging rapid sequencing technologies, it may be possible in future to predict antimicrobial resistance faster than existing culture-based methods. Sequencing also provides insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance, their spread in time and space, as well as the molecular epidemiology of the gonococcal strains.

Original publication





Publication Date





59 - 76


Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.


Humans, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Gonorrhea, Bacterial Proteins, DNA, Bacterial, RNA, Ribosomal, 23S, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, DNA Mutational Analysis, Drug Resistance, Bacterial, Mutation, Promoter Regions, Genetic, Molecular Epidemiology, DNA Copy Number Variations, Whole Genome Sequencing