Genome-wide association study of smoking initiation and current smoking.
Vink JM., Smit AB., de Geus EJC., Sullivan P., Willemsen G., Hottenga J-J., Smit JH., Hoogendijk WJ., Zitman FG., Peltonen L., Kaprio J., Pedersen NL., Magnusson PK., Spector TD., Kyvik KO., Morley KI., Heath AC., Martin NG., Westendorp RGJ., Slagboom PE., Tiemeier H., Hofman A., Uitterlinden AG., Aulchenko YS., Amin N., van Duijn C., Penninx BW., Boomsma DI.
For the identification of genes associated with smoking initiation and current smoking, genome-wide association analyses were carried out in 3497 subjects. Significant genes that replicated in three independent samples (n = 405, 5810, and 1648) were visualized into a biologically meaningful network showing cellular location and direct interaction of their proteins. Several interesting groups of proteins stood out, including glutamate receptors (e.g., GRIN2B, GRIN2A, GRIK2, GRM8), proteins involved in tyrosine kinase receptor signaling (e.g., NTRK2, GRB14), transporters (e.g., SLC1A2, SLC9A9) and cell-adhesion molecules (e.g., CDH23). We conclude that a network-based genome-wide association approach can identify genes influencing smoking behavior.