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This paper shows how a formal notion of refinement may be defined for models, and model components, expressed in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). A formal, behavioural semantics is given to combinations of class, object, and state diagrams, using the notation of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP); this semantics is adequate for the analysis of concurrent, communicating behaviour, and induces a notion of refinement for UML based upon existing notions of traces and failures refinement for CSP. © 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B. V.

Original publication




Journal article


Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science

Publication Date





577 - 603