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AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: An APOC3 promoter haplotype has been previously associated with type 1 diabetes. In this population-based study, we investigated whether APOC3 polymorphisms increase type 2 diabetes risk and need for insulin treatment in lean participants. METHODS: In the Rotterdam Study, a population-based prospective cohort (n = 7,983), Cox and logistic regression models were used to analyse the associations and interactive effects of APOC3 promoter variants (-482C > T, -455T > C) and BMI on type 2 diabetes risk and insulin treatment. Analyses were followed by replication in an independent case-control sample (1,817 cases, 2,292 controls) and meta-analysis. RESULTS: In lean participants, the -482T allele was associated with increased risk of prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes: OR -482CT 1.47 (95% CI 1.13-1.92), -482TT 1.40 (95% CI 0.83-2.35), p = 0.009 for trend; HR -482CT 1.35 (95% CI 0.96-1.89), -482TT 1.68 (95% CI 0.91-3.1), p = 0.03 for trend, respectively. These results were confirmed by replication. Meta-analysis was highly significant (-482T meta-analysis p = 1.1 × 10(-4)). A borderline significant interaction was observed for insulin use among participants with type 2 diabetes (-482CT*BMI p = 0.06, -455TC*BMI p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: At a population-based level, the influence of APOC3 promoter variants on type 2 diabetes risk varies with the level of adiposity. Lean carriers of the -482T allele had increased type 2 diabetes risk, while such an effect was not observed in overweight participants. Conversely, in overweight participants the -455C allele seemed protective against type 2 diabetes. The interaction of the variants with need for insulin treatment may indicate beta cell involvement in lean participants. Our findings suggest overlap in the genetic backgrounds of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes in lean patients.

Original publication

DOI

10.1007/s00125-011-2092-x

Type

Journal article

Journal

Diabetologia

Publication Date

06/2011

Volume

54

Pages

1360 - 1367

Addresses

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Keywords

Humans, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Thinness, Insulin, Hypoglycemic Agents, Prevalence, Logistic Models, Risk Factors, Case-Control Studies, Cohort Studies, Prospective Studies, Haplotypes, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Alleles, Aged, Aged, 80 and over, Middle Aged, Netherlands, Female, Male, Apolipoprotein C-III, Promoter Regions, Genetic