Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity in 195 Countries over 25 Years.
Afshin A., Forouzanfar MH., Reitsma MB., Sur P., Estep K., Lee A., Marczak L., Mokdad AH., Moradi-Lakeh M., Naghavi M., Salama JS., Vos T., Abate KH., Abbafati C., Ahmed MB., Al-Aly Z., Alkerwi AA., Al-Raddadi R., Amare AT., Amberbir A., Amegah AK., Amini E., Amrock SM., Anjana RM., Ärnlöv J., Asayesh H., Banerjee A., Barac A., Baye E., Bennett DA., Beyene AS., Biadgilign S., Biryukov S., Bjertness E., Boneya DJ., Campos-Nonato I., Carrero JJ., Cecilio P., Cercy K., Ciobanu LG., Cornaby L., Damtew SA., Dandona L., Dandona R., Dharmaratne SD., Duncan BB., Eshrati B., Esteghamati A., Feigin VL., Fernandes JC., Fürst T., Gebrehiwot TT., Gold A., Gona PN., Goto A., Habtewold TD., Hadush KT., Hafezi-Nejad N., Hay SI., Horino M., Islami F., Kamal R., Kasaeian A., Katikireddi SV., Kengne AP., Kesavachandran CN., Khader YS., Khang Y-H., Khubchandani J., Kim D., Kim YJ., Kinfu Y., Kosen S., Ku T., Defo BK., Kumar GA., Larson HJ., Leinsalu M., Liang X., Lim SS., Liu P., Lopez AD., Lozano R., Majeed A., Malekzadeh R., Malta DC., Mazidi M., McAlinden C., McGarvey ST., Mengistu DT., Mensah GA., Mensink GBM., Mezgebe HB., Mirrakhimov EM., Mueller UO., Noubiap JJ., Obermeyer CM., Ogbo FA., Owolabi MO., Patton GC., Pourmalek F., Qorbani M., Rafay A., Rai RK., Ranabhat CL., Reinig N., Safiri S., Salomon JA., Sanabria JR., Santos IS., Sartorius B., Sawhney M., Schmidhuber J., Schutte AE., Schmidt MI., Sepanlou SG., Shamsizadeh M., Sheikhbahaei S., Shin M-J., Shiri R., Shiue I., Roba HS., Silva DAS., Silverberg JI., Singh JA., Stranges S., Swaminathan S., Tabarés-Seisdedos R., Tadese F., Tedla BA., Tegegne BS., Terkawi AS., Thakur JS., Tonelli M., Topor-Madry R., Tyrovolas S., Ukwaja KN., Uthman OA., Vaezghasemi M., Vasankari T., Vlassov VV., Vollset SE., Weiderpass E., Werdecker A., Wesana J., Westerman R., Yano Y., Yonemoto N., Yonga G., Zaidi Z., Zenebe ZM., Zipkin B., Murray CJL.
Although the rising pandemic of obesity has received major attention in many countries, the effects of this attention on trends and the disease burden of obesity remain uncertain.We analyzed data from 68.5 million persons to assess the trends in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adults between 1980 and 2015. Using the Global Burden of Disease study data and methods, we also quantified the burden of disease related to high body-mass index (BMI), according to age, sex, cause, and BMI in 195 countries between 1990 and 2015.In 2015, a total of 107.7 million children and 603.7 million adults were obese. Since 1980, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in more than 70 countries and has continuously increased in most other countries. Although the prevalence of obesity among children has been lower than that among adults, the rate of increase in childhood obesity in many countries has been greater than the rate of increase in adult obesity. High BMI accounted for 4.0 million deaths globally, nearly 40% of which occurred in persons who were not obese. More than two thirds of deaths related to high BMI were due to cardiovascular disease. The disease burden related to high BMI has increased since 1990; however, the rate of this increase has been attenuated owing to decreases in underlying rates of death from cardiovascular disease.The rapid increase in the prevalence and disease burden of elevated BMI highlights the need for continued focus on surveillance of BMI and identification, implementation, and evaluation of evidence-based interventions to address this problem. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).