Shifting genetic structure of invasive serotype 19A pneumococci in the United States.
Beall BW., Gertz RE., Hulkower RL., Whitney CG., Moore MR., Brueggemann AB.
BACKGROUND: Following 7-valent conjugate vaccine introduction in the United States in 2000, invasive serotype (sero19A) pneumococcal disease (IPD) emerged rapidly. Sero19A IPD incidence increased slightly during 2005-2008 (from 2.3 cases to 2.5 cases per 100,000 population), whereas sero19A penicillin resistance (defined as a minimum inhibitor concentration [MIC] ≥2 μg/mL) increased significantly (from 28.7% to 43.7%). To better understand changes, we characterized sero19A isolates recovered during 2004-2008. METHODS: We performed antimicrobial susceptibility testing on all 2767 sero19A IPD isolates identified through the Centers for Disease Control Active Bacterial Core surveillance during 2004-2008. We genotyped 1804 (96.3%) of 1874 sero19A isolates recovered during 2005-2007 and all 148 year 2008 sero19A isolates from children <5 years of age. RESULTS: Resistant clonal complex (CC) 320/271(19A) increased from 20.9% (115 of 550) to 32.9% (208 of 633; P < .001) of IPD isolates during 2005-2007, which paralleled increased sero19A penicillin resistance (from 28.7% [163 of 567 isolates] to 39.5% [261 of 661 isolates]; P < .001). Total IPD due to 320/271(19A) increased during 2005-2007 and increased from 2.1 to 3.6 cases per 100,000 population during 2005-2008 in children <5 years of age. The penicillin-susceptible/intermediate, putative vaccine-escape CC695(19A) increased from 7.5% (41 of 550) to 13.6% (85 of 633) of sero19A isolates during 2005-2007 (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: Sero19A rates may have plateaued; however, clonal shifts are increasing resistance. Increased IPD caused by CC320/271(19A) and CC695(19A) could reflect additional selective advantages in addition to resistance.