BackgroundAssociations between kidney function and dementia risk are inconclusive. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) severity is determined by levels of both estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). However, whether there is a graded increase in dementia risk for worse eGFR in each ACR category is unclear. Also, whether genetic risk for dementia impacts the associations is unknown. The current study aims to investigate the associations between eGFR and albuminuria with dementia risk both individually and jointly, whether the associations vary by different follow-up periods, and whether genetic factors modified the associations.MethodsIn 202,702 participants aged ≥ 60 years from the UK Biobank, Cox proportional-hazards models were used to examine the associations between eGFR and urine albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) with risk of incident dementia. GFR was estimated based on serum creatinine, cystatin C, or both. The models were restricted to different follow-up periods (ResultsOver 15 years of follow-up, 6,042 participants developed dementia. Decreased kidney function (eGFR 2) was associated with an increased risk of dementia (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.28-1.58), compared to normal kidney function (≥ 90 ml/min/1.73m2). The strength of the association remained consistent when the models were restricted to different periods of follow-up. The HRs for incident dementia were 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.26) and 2.24 (95% CI 1.79-2.80) for moderate (3-30 mg/mmol) and severely increased ACR (≥ 30 mg/mmol) compared to normal ACR (ConclusionsKidney dysfunction and albuminuria were individually and jointly associated with higher dementia risk. The associations were greater amongst participants with a lower genetic risk of dementia based on APOE, but not non-APOE polygenic risk.
Alzheimer's research & therapy
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, No.250, Wuxing St., Taipei, 11031, Taiwan. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Kidney, Humans, Dementia, Albuminuria, Creatinine, Albumins, Biological Specimen Banks, United Kingdom