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The genetic diversity of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, the agent of Lyme disease in North America, has consequences for the performance of serological diagnostic tests and disease severity. To investigate B. burgdorferi diversity in Canada, where Lyme disease is emerging, bacterial DNA in 309 infected adult Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in surveillance was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and analysis of outer surface protein C gene (ospC) alleles. Six ticks carried Borrelia miyamotoi, and one tick carried the novel species Borrelia kurtenbachii. 142 ticks carried B. burgdorferi sequence types (STs) previously described from the United States. Fifty-eight ticks carried B. burgdorferi of 1 of 19 novel or undescribed STs, which were single-, double-, or triple-locus variants of STs first described in the United States. Clonal complexes with founder STs from the United States were identified. Seventeen ospC alleles were identified in 309 B. burgdorferi-infected ticks. Positive and negative associations in the occurrence of different alleles in the same tick supported a hypothesis of multiple-niche polymorphism for B. burgdorferi in North America. Geographic analysis of STs and ospC alleles were consistent with south-to-north dispersion of infected ticks from U.S. sources on migratory birds. These observations suggest that the genetic diversity of B. burgdorferi in eastern and central Canada corresponds to that in the United States, but there was evidence for founder events skewing the diversity in emerging tick populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the significance of these observations for the performance of diagnostic tests and clinical presentation of Lyme disease in Canada.

Original publication

DOI

10.1128/AEM.02636-10

Type

Journal article

Journal

Applied and environmental microbiology

Publication Date

05/2011

Volume

77

Pages

3244 - 3254

Addresses

Zoonoses Division, Centre for Food-Borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Public Health Agency of Canada, Jeanne Mance Building, 200 Eglantine, Tunney's Pasture, AL 1906B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A0K9, Canada. nicholas.ogden@phac-aspc.gc.ca

Keywords

Animals, Ixodes, Borrelia burgdorferi, Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins, Antigens, Bacterial, Bacterial Typing Techniques, Genotype, Canada, Genetic Variation, Multilocus Sequence Typing, Phylogeography