Genome sequencing and analysis of the Tasmanian devil and its transmissible cancer.
Murchison EP., Schulz-Trieglaff OB., Ning Z., Alexandrov LB., Bauer MJ., Fu B., Hims M., Ding Z., Ivakhno S., Stewart C., Ng BL., Wong W., Aken B., White S., Alsop A., Becq J., Bignell GR., Cheetham RK., Cheng W., Connor TR., Cox AJ., Feng Z-P., Gu Y., Grocock RJ., Harris SR., Khrebtukova I., Kingsbury Z., Kowarsky M., Kreiss A., Luo S., Marshall J., McBride DJ., Murray L., Pearse A-M., Raine K., Rasolonjatovo I., Shaw R., Tedder P., Tregidgo C., Vilella AJ., Wedge DC., Woods GM., Gormley N., Humphray S., Schroth G., Smith G., Hall K., Searle SMJ., Carter NP., Papenfuss AT., Futreal PA., Campbell PJ., Yang F., Bentley DR., Evers DJ., Stratton MR.
The Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), the largest marsupial carnivore, is endangered due to a transmissible facial cancer spread by direct transfer of living cancer cells through biting. Here we describe the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Tasmanian devil genome and whole-genome sequences for two geographically distant subclones of the cancer. Genomic analysis suggests that the cancer first arose from a female Tasmanian devil and that the clone has subsequently genetically diverged during its spread across Tasmania. The devil cancer genome contains more than 17,000 somatic base substitution mutations and bears the imprint of a distinct mutational process. Genotyping of somatic mutations in 104 geographically and temporally distributed Tasmanian devil tumors reveals the pattern of evolution and spread of this parasitic clonal lineage, with evidence of a selective sweep in one geographical area and persistence of parallel lineages in other populations.