Development of a malaria vaccine.
Kwiatkowski D., Marsh K.
Development of an effective malaria vaccine poses a major scientific challenge both in the laboratory and in the field. Such a vaccine is necessary because of the massive disease burden of malaria in the developing world, the global spread of drug resistance, and the difficulty of sustainable control of the mosquito vector. Animal models have shown the immunological feasibility of vaccines targeted against different stages of parasite development, and studies in human volunteers have shown that a recombinant protein vaccine can protect against challenge with the homologous strain of parasite. However, both natural and vaccine-induced immunity are hampered by the remarkable capacity of the parasites to vary critical antigenic structures; large field trials of a synthetic peptide vaccine gave equivocal results. In an attempt to overcome the dual difficulty of poor immunogenicity and parasite diversity, much experimental work is now focused on complex antigenic constructs, delivered as DNA vaccines or in live vectors such as vaccinia, with multiple targets at each stage of parasite development.