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The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-up their malaria control activities and reconsidering their prospects for elimination. These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication.

Original publication




Journal article


The Lancet. Infectious diseases

Publication Date





369 - 378


Malaria Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Centre for Geographic Medicine, Kenya Medical Research Institute/University of Oxford/Wellcome Trust Collaborative Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.


Humans, Malaria, Incidence, Prevalence, Risk Factors, Endemic Diseases, Global Health