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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent and highly heritable disorder of childhood with negative lifetime outcomes. Although candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified promising common variant signals, these explain only a fraction of the heritability of ADHD. The observation that rare structural variants confer substantial risk to psychiatric disorders suggests that rare variants might explain a portion of the missing heritability for ADHD. Here we believe we performed the first large-scale next-generation targeted sequencing study of ADHD in 152 child and adolescent cases and 188 controls across an a priori set of 117 genes. A multi-marker gene-level analysis of rare (<1% frequency) single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) revealed that the gene encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was associated with ADHD at Bonferroni corrected levels. Sanger sequencing confirmed the existence of all novel rare BDNF variants. Our results implicate BDNF as a genetic risk factor for ADHD, potentially by virtue of its critical role in neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity.

Original publication




Journal article


Molecular psychiatry

Publication Date





580 - 584


School of Psychological Sciences and Monash Institute for Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences (MICCN), Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.


Humans, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, DNA, Risk Factors, Case-Control Studies, Sequence Analysis, DNA, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, Genotype, Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide, Adolescent, Child, Ireland, Female, Male, Genetic Variation, Genome-Wide Association Study, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing