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  • A singleton failures semantics for communicating sequential processes

    16 October 2018

    This paper defines a new denotational semantics for the language of Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP). The semantics lies between the existing traces and failures models of CSP providing a treatment of non-determinism in terms of singleton failures. Although the semantics does not represent a congruence upon the full language it is adequate for sequential tests of non-deterministic processes. This semantics corresponds exactly to a commonly used notion of data refinement in Z and Object-Z: an abstract data type is refined when the corresponding process is refined in terms of singleton failures. The semantics is used to explore the relationship between data refinement and process refinement and to derive a rule for data refinement that is both sound and complete. BCS © 2006.

  • A metadata-aware application for remote scoring and exchange of tissue microarray images.

    16 October 2018

    The use of tissue microarrays (TMA) and advances in digital scanning microscopy has enabled the collection of thousands of tissue images. There is a need for software tools to annotate, query and share this data amongst researchers in different physical locations.We have developed an open source web-based application for remote scoring of TMA images, which exploits the value of Microsoft Silverlight Deep Zoom to provide a intuitive interface for zooming and panning around digital images. We use and extend existing XML-based standards to ensure that the data collected can be archived and that our system is interoperable with other standards-compliant systems.The application has been used for multi-centre scoring of TMA slides composed of tissues from several Phase III breast cancer trials and ten different studies participating in the International Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The system has enabled researchers to simultaneously score large collections of TMA and export the standardised data to integrate with pathological and clinical outcome data, thereby facilitating biomarker discovery.

  • Whole-genome sequencing provides new insights into the clonal architecture of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.

    16 October 2018

    The molecular genetic relationship between esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its precursor lesion, Barrett's esophagus, is poorly understood. Using whole-genome sequencing on 23 paired Barrett's esophagus and EAC samples, together with one in-depth Barrett's esophagus case study sampled over time and space, we have provided the following new insights: (i) Barrett's esophagus is polyclonal and highly mutated even in the absence of dysplasia; (ii) when cancer develops, copy number increases and heterogeneity persists such that the spectrum of mutations often shows surprisingly little overlap between EAC and adjacent Barrett's esophagus; and (iii) despite differences in specific coding mutations, the mutational context suggests a common causative insult underlying these two conditions. From a clinical perspective, the histopathological assessment of dysplasia appears to be a poor reflection of the molecular disarray within the Barrett's epithelium, and a molecular Cytosponge technique overcomes sampling bias and has the capacity to reflect the entire clonal architecture.

  • Role of data warehousing in healthcare epidemiology

    16 October 2018

    © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of the Healthcare Infection Society. Electronic storage of healthcare data, including individual-level risk factors for both infectious and other diseases, is increasing. These data can be integrated at hospital, regional and national levels. Data sources that contain risk factor and outcome information for a wide range of conditions offer the potential for efficient epidemiological analysis of multiple diseases. Opportunities may also arise for monitoring healthcare processes. Integrating diverse data sources presents epidemiological, practical, and ethical challenges. For example, diagnostic criteria, outcome definitions, and ascertainment methods may differ across the data sources. Data volumes may be very large, requiring sophisticated computing technology. Given the large populations involved, perhaps the most challenging aspect is how informed consent can be obtained for the development of integrated databases, particularly when it is not easy to demonstrate their potential. In this article, we discuss some of the ups and downs of recent projects as well as the potential of data warehousing for antimicrobial resistance monitoring.

  • Formal model-driven engineering of critical information systems

    16 October 2018

    © 2014 The Authors. Model-driven engineering is the generation of software artefacts from abstract models. This is achieved through transformations that encode domain knowledge and implementation strategies. The same transformations can be used to produce quite different systems, or to produce successive versions of the same system. A model-driven approach can thus reduce the cost of development. It can also reduce the cost of verification: if the transformations are shown or assumed to be correct, each new system or version can be verified in terms of its model, rather than its implementation. This paper introduces an approach to model-driven engineering that is particularly suited to the development of critical information systems. The language of the models, and the language of the transformations, are amenable to formal analysis. The transformation strategy, and the associated development methodology, are designed to preserve systems integrity and availability.

  • Introduction to the electronic government education mini-track

    16 October 2018

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the mini-track on Electronic Government Education organized as part of the Electronic Government Track at the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-47). © 2014 IEEE.

  • A formal model for RDF dataset constraints

    16 October 2018

    Linked Data has forged new ground in developing easy-to-use, distributed databases. The prevalence of this data has enabled a new genre of social and scientific applications. At the same time, Semantic Web technology has failed to significantly displace SQL or XML in industrial applications, in part because it offers no equivalent schema publication and enforcement mechanisms to ensure data consistency. The RDF community has recognized the need for a formal mechanism to publish verifiable assertions about the structure and content of RDF Graphs, RDF Datasets and related resources. We propose a formal model that could serve as a foundation for describing the various types invariants, pre- and post-conditions for RDF datasets and then demonstrate how the model can be used to analyze selected example constraints. © 2014 Springer International Publishing.

  • Government Information Networks - Mapping electronic governance cases through public administration concepts

    16 October 2018

    Facing economic pressure, social tensions, global competition and low public confidence, governments can no longer afford to address increasingly complex and interdependent public goals alone or step back and rely on the markets. Instead, they have to work through networks of state and non-state actors to organize existing resources, knowledge and capabilities in the pursuit of public goals. The new paradigm increasingly relies on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to connect actors to the network and to build, manage and sustain relationships between them. We refer to such ICT-enabled networks as Government Information Networks. This article serves as an introduction to the current issue of Government Information Quarterly on Government Information Networks. The issue comprises twelve cases of such networks selected from the papers submitted to the 5th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, ICEGOV2010, held in Beijing, China, October 2010. The article also presents a conceptual framework for public administration networks, and applies the framework to describe, analyze and compare the cases, thus relating the volume to the Public Administration literature. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  • Using CSP

    16 October 2018

    This is a tutorial on Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP): a language for modelling patterns of behaviour. It explores the design of the language, and shows how it may be used to construct descriptions of behavioural properties and distributed systems. It explains also how the use of the language may be supported by verification tools. In the next section, we motivate the use of communicating sequential processes to model and reason about complex systems. After that, we present the basic constructs of CSP that can be used to define sequential processes; a number of laws and examples provide the intuition. The semantic models of CSP are the subject of Section 3, where we also introduce the notion of refinement for processes. Sections 4 and 5 present more elaborate CSP constructs to compose processes, including those that model parallel behaviour; again, an extensive number of laws and examples are presented. Data aspects of a system can also be modelled in CSP; this is discussed in Section 6. An important application of CSP is communication protocols; their modelling is discussed in Section 7. Finally, in Section 8, we briefly present the main CSP tools: FDR and Probe. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006.